The Nisei Soldiers of World War II

The Nisei Soldiers of World War II

African-Americans were not the only ones to experience racism and discrimination by the armed forces during World War II. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, first generation Japanese Americans, Issei, and second generation, Nisei, soon faced harsh discrimination and assaults on their character and loyalty to America. Out of wartime fear, two months after Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the internment of some 110,000 Japanese-American citizens. However, perhaps President Roosevelt and ordinary Americans should not have acted so rashly to detain over 100,000 Japanese Americans, because the war in Europe would soon demand any able bodied men to join the fight.

As American-born citizens with Japanese descent, many Nisei were eager to serve their country, but due to further discrimination, Nisei were not permitted to join the United States military. About a year after internment began, President Roosevelt reversed this policy and authorized the enlistment of Japanese Americans. However, though they were now allowed to serve in the military, Japanese Americans were restricted to a segregated infantry outfit. This unit became known as the 442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team. Upon requests for volunteers, 10,000 Japanese Americans reported to recruiting offices in 1943.

In 1944, as the Allied fight in North Africa and Italy met increased opposition from German forces, the 442nd found themselves under the command of General Mark Clark, commander of the Fifth Army in Italy. The 442nd joined the 100th Infantry Battalion, which was a majority Japanese American unit from Hawaii, created in 1942 before the ban on Japanese American involvement in the military. This unit was battle hardened, having seen action in North Africa and Italy for some time. By June 1944 and the fall of Rome, the 100th experienced many casualties and were in need of reinforcements in order to continue the fight into central Europe.

The 442nd soon proved not only their loyalty to America, but also their indispensability in Clark’s army. They were instrumental in pushing the German lines back and their heroism and bravery were admired and revered by many. General George Marshall said of the 442nd: “They were superb! They showed rare courage and tremendous fighting spirit. Everybody wanted them.” The 442nd further demonstrated their “extraordinary bravery and valor” for their service and sacrifice in France in the fall of 1944. These Nisei soldiers who were “once considered a problem by the army, [were now] seen as a problem solver,” and were called upon for a special rescue mission of the 141st Regiment who were surrounded by German forces in France. In an effort to rescue these 275 men of the 141st, the 442nd experienced immense casualties. In addition to North Africa and Italy, Japanese Americans assisted in the Pacific Theater by serving as interpreters and translators against the Japanese as part of the Military Intelligence Service.

The 442nd in France.

The Japanese American soldiers, such as the 100th and the 442nd are often overlooked in the history of World War II. Despite the discrimination they met at home and on the battlefield, the Nisei soldiers proved to America their worth and loyalty. The role of minorities during World War II cannot be overstated; the efforts of Japanese Americans, African Americans, women, and Native Americans were vital to allied victory. While many recognized the effort and sacrifice of Japanese Americans in both theaters of war, these soldiers were not acknowledged for their service and bravery for almost six decades after the war. When they were finally recognized, twenty men from the 442nd were awarded the Medal of Honor.

-Meika

Source:

“Fighting for Democracy: Japanese Americans.” PBS. 2007. Web. Accessed March 28, 2017.            http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_war_democracy_japanese_american.htm

Images:

1)     http://kpalm1970.weebly.com/uploads/2/3/7/9/23793842/8320447.jpg?475

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/02/18/279287964/after-tour-medal-for-wwii-japanese-american-soldiers-returns-home

1Comment
  • Isami Yoshihara
    Posted at 21:06h, 12 October Reply

    Your article seems to imply that the 442nd RCT was made up of men from the internment camps while the 100th Infantry Battalion consisted of men from Hawaii. Here are the facts:

    First, 100th Infantry Battalion.
    At the time of the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7, there were about 1,500 Nisei soldiers who were inducted through three military drafts prior to Pearl Harbor serving in the 298th and 299th Infantry of the Hawaii National Guard which had been federalized into the U.S. Army in October, 1940. 1,432 Nisei soldiers were then transferred out of 298th and 299th into the “Hawaiian Provisional Infantry Battalion” and sailed from Honolulu on the SS Maui on June 5, 1942. Upon arrival in San Francisco, the War Department activated them into the “100th Infantry Battalion (Separate)”, “separate” meaning not attached to a regiment or any other military unit, literally a military orphan outfit. In spite of such inauspicious origin, the unit was destined to become the famed and legendary 100th Battalion when it entered the war in Italy in September, 1943. Because of its accomplishments, it retained its designation when it joined the 442nd RCT in June, 1944. http://442sd.org/…/teds-corner-a-salute-to-the-one…/ http://encyclopedia.densho.org/100th%20Infantry%20Battalion/

    Second, 442nd RCT.
    On March 30, 1942, the War Department stopped the induction of Japanese Americans in the armed services by classifying them 4C – aliens not acceptable to armed forces. (This order was subsequently rescinded on January 31, 1944.) On February 1, 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized the formation of the 442nd RCT made up of volunteers. Because 1,500 men from Hawaii was already serving in the 100th Infantry Battalion, the original plan was to have 2,500 men volunteer from the internment camps and 1,500 from Hawaii. However, recruiting men from the mainland internment camps understandably did not go well so the final allocation was reversed with 2,686 men out of 10,000 who volunteered from Hawaii being inducted. The 442nd entered combat north of Rome on June 26, 1944 when it incorporated the 100th Battalion which, because of its outstanding combat record, was allowed to keep its designation. Thus, the infantry units in the RCT were the 100th, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions. http://encyclopedia.densho.org/442nd%20Regimental…/

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